Thursday, March 12, 2020

Who Was Mother Theresa Essays - Mother Teresa, Doctors Of The Church

Who Was Mother Theresa Essays - Mother Teresa, Doctors Of The Church Who Was Mother Theresa Who Was Mother Teresa? Mother Teresa was always her own person, startlingly independent, obedient, yet challenging some preconceived notions and expectations. Her own life story includes many illustrations of her willingness to listen to and follow her own conscience, even when it seemed to contradict what was expected. This strong and independent Slavic woman was born Gonxha (Agnes) Bojaxhiu in Skopje, Yugoslavia, on August 27, 1910. Five children were born to Nikola and Dronda Bojaxhiu, yet only three survived. Gonxha was the youngest, with an older sister, Aga, and brother, Lazar. This brother describes the family's early years as well-off, not the life of peasants reported inaccurately by some. We lacked for nothing. In fact, the family lived in one of the two houses they owned. Nikola was a contractor, working with a partner in a successful construction business. He was also heavily involved in the politics of the day. Lazar tells of his father's rather sudden and shocking death, which may have been due to poisoning because of his political involvement. With this event, life changed overnight as their mother assumed total responsibility for the family, Aga, only 14, Lazar, 9, and Gonxha, 7. Though so much of her young life was centered in the Church, Mother Teresa later revealed that until she reached 18, she had never thought of being a nun. During her early years, however, she was fascinated with stories of missionary life and service. She could locate any number of missions on the map, and tell others of the service being given in each place. Called to Religious Life At 18, Gonxha decided to follow the path that seems to have been unconsciously unfolding throughout her life. She chose the Loreto Sisters of Dublin, missionaries and educators founded in the 17th century to educate young girls. In 1928, the future Mother Teresa began her religious life in Ireland, far from her family and the life she'd known, never seeing her mother again in this life, speaking a language few understood. During this period a sister novice remembered her as very small, quiet and shy, and another member of the congregation described her as ordinary. Mother Teresa herself, even with the later decision to begin her own community of religious, continued to value her beginnings with the Loreto sisters and to maintain close ties. Unwavering commitment and self-discipline, always a part of her life and reinforced in her association with the Loreto sisters, seemed to stay with her throughout her life. One year later, in 1929, Gonxha was sent to Darjeeling to the novitiate of the Sisters of Loreto. In 1931, she made her first vows there, choosing the name of Teresa, honoring both saints of the same name, Teresa of Avila and Therese of Lisieux. In keeping with the usual procedures of the congregation and her deepest desires, it was time for the new Sister Teresa to begin her years of service to God's people. She was sent to St. Mary's, a high school for girls in a district of Calcutta. Here she began a career teaching history and geography, which she reportedly did with dedication and enjoyment for the next 15 years. It was in the protected environment of this school for the daughters of the wealthy that Teresa's new vocation developed and grew. This was the clear message, the invitation to her second calling, that Teresa heard on that fateful day in 1946 when she traveled to Darjeeling for retreat. The Streets of Calcutta During the next two years, Teresa pursued every avenue to follow what she never doubted was the direction God was pointing her. She was to give up even Loreto where I was very happy and to go out in the streets. I heard the call to give up all and follow Christ into the slums to serve him among the poorest of the poor. Technicalities and practicalities abounded. She had to be released formally, not from her perpetual vows, but from living within the convents of the Sisters of Loreto. She had to confront the Church's resistance to forming new religious communities, and receive permission from the Archbishop of Calcutta to serve the poor openly on the streets. She had to figure out how to live and work on the streets, without the safety and comfort of the convent. As for clothing, Teresa decided she would set aside the habit she had worn during her years as a Loreto sister and wear the ordinary dress of an Indian woman: a plain white sari and sandals. Teresa first went to Patna for a few months to prepare for her future work by taking a nursing course. In 1948 she received permission from Pius XII to leave her community and live as an independent nun. So back to Calcutta she went and found a small hovel to rent to begin her

Tuesday, February 25, 2020

Evaluation of Safety-Critical Software Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 2750 words

Evaluation of Safety-Critical Software - Essay Example To that end, there were several attempts to measure the dependability of safety-critical software. Similarly, Harlan Mills and his colleagues had developed a process called â€Å"clean room† that utilized independent testing groups to act as end users of programmable devices and were said to generate reliable results than the common practice of software professionals who performed a series of carefully planned tests to measure the reliability of their owned inventions. All things considered, an exhaustive mathematical test, not only based on intuitive reasoning, must be conducted to ensure the trustworthiness of safety-critical software. Programmable computers are tools that provide convenience to the end users, however, devices that are controlled by safety-critical software can threaten lives of people, as well. To that end, an extreme discipline in design in the making is needed. Data and related information should be laid out in a way that it could be easily comprehended by an independent group of testers. That is to say that â€Å"clean room† as developed by Harlan Mills and company must be applied to prevent unbiased results. Human errors often occurred, especially when software professionals would try to self-assist their own works. With this in mind, why engineers had chosen software instead of hardware? In the first place, software components were less expensive than hard-wired logic. These components were massed produced. Secondly, logic, in theory, that was implemented on software could be easily changed than of the one implemented on the hard-wired device. Lastly, software is more flexible than of non-computerized system. For instance, the modern computer technology could provide more information to the end users in a more convenient manner. Less space and power were needed to produce this information.

Sunday, February 9, 2020

The Problem of Moral Judgment Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 1000 words

The Problem of Moral Judgment - Essay Example It is reality beyond suspicion that every political establishment and social set up observes some specific code of law that permits or prohibits the actions of the people, violation of which declares the law breakers as offenders and punishment and penalties are inflicted upon them. Nevertheless, moral values maintain imperative worth everywhere in the world and no society can do away without moral values altogether. Consequently, moral judgment has been debatable subject for theorists, scholars, intellectuals and philosophers since ever. The theorists are in conflict regarding the evaluation of moral judgment. One group of the scholars, led by Sir Bertrand Russell, views moral judgment as entirely the outcome of one’s personal opinion about the goodness or evil of an action i.e. subjectivism, while the other school of thought, led by Blanchard, views moral judgment to be based on objectivism, where it is estimated on the foundation of universal morality and truthfulness, and thus it has no relation with the personal yardstick to measure whether an act or intention is virtue and right or vice and wrong. Hence, conflict of opinion makes moral judgment a problem to be solved in an intellectual manner. Renowned philosopher Ewing is an arch supporter of the idea of objectivism. He is of the opinion that a person cannot be wrong in making statement regarding moral judgment, and thus his views are valid and accurate that must be accepted to be true and apposite one. Moral judgment is a complex phenomenon; consequently it cannot be made by everyone without analyzing the available facts and figures. On the contrary, scholars and intellectuals endorse their statements to accept or reject its validity. No Continuity/Unity to Subjective Agreements: Ewing has explained his argument in six points in favor of the opinion he has made while defining moral judgment, where he submits to state that it seldom occurs in real life while

Thursday, January 30, 2020

Knowledge and Assessment Essay Example for Free

Knowledge and Assessment Essay 1. Understand the principles requirements of assessment 1. 1explain the functions of assessment in learning and development Determining level of knowledge understanding †¢ Ensuring that learning is taking place †¢ Checking progress †¢ Adhering to course criteria 1. 2define the key concepts and principles of assessment 1. Explain the functions of assessment in learning and development. Assessment is carried out to evaluate that learning has taken place. It measures the learner’s attainment of knowledge and skills in their particular learning area. Assessment encourages learners to ask questions on anything they have not fully understood, as learners know that they will have to prove their knowledge and understanding during assessment to the standards of the awarding body. The anticipated outcome of assessment is that the learner will complete assessment to City and Guild standards within the time frame stated, with no assistance and show through answering questions that they have full understanding of the subject. 2. Define the key concepts and principles of assessment. Assessment has to remain fair, consistent and valid to ensure all learners have an equal and fair chance of receiving a fair assessment. An assessor cannot be swayed 1. 3 explain the responsibilities of the assessor The role of the assessor is to assess the learner’s knowledge and performance in a range of tasks. This includes, ? Ensuring that the learner has demonstrated competence and knowledge in the assessment to the standard of City and Guilds criteria. ? Assessments need to be planned between the assessor and each learner; the learner needs to be fully aware of his/her responsibilities in the collection and presentation of evidence. ? The assessor then needs to observe the learners performance in their workplace or similar environment and can ask questions to confirm a learners understanding. ? Accurate and constructive feedback needs to be given to the 1. 4 identify the regulations and requirements relevant to assessment in own area of practice 2. Understand different types of assessment methods 2. 1 compare the strengths and limitations of a range of assessment methods with reference to the needs of individual learners 3. Understand how to plan assessment 3. 1 summarise key factors to consider when planning assessment 3. 2 evaluate the benefits of using a holistic approach to assessment 3. 3 explain how to plan a holistic approach to assessment 3. 4 summarise the types of risks that may be involved in assessment in own area of responsibility 3. 5 explain how to minimise risks through the planning process 4. Understand how to involve learners others in assessment 4. 1 explain the importance of involving the learner and others in the assessment process 4. 2 summarise types of information that should be made available to learners and others involved in the assessment process. 4. 3 explain how peer and self-assessment can be used effectively to promote learner involvement and personal responsibility in the assessment of l earning 4. 4 explain how assessment arrangements can be adapted to meet the needs of individual learners 5. Understand how to make assessment decisions 5. 1 explain how to judge whether evidence is: †¢Sufficient †¢Authentic †¢Current 5. 2 explain how to ensure that assessment decisions are: †¢Made against specific criteria †¢Valid †¢Reliable †¢Fair 6. Understand Quality Assurance of the assessment process. 6. 1 evaluate the importance of quality assurance in the assessment process 6. 2 summarise quality assurance and standardisation procedures in own area of practice 6. 3 summarise the procedures to follow when there are disputes concerning assessment in own area of practice 7. Understand how to manage information relating to assessment 7. 1 explain the importance of following procedures for the management of information relating to assessment 7. 2 explain how feedback questioning contribute to the assessment process 8. Understand the legal good practice requirements in relation to assessment 8. 1 explain legal issues, policies and procedures relevant to assessment, including those for confidentiality, health, safety and welfare 8. 2 explain the contribution that technology can make to the assessment process 8. 3 evaluate requirements for equality and diversity and, where appropriate, bilingualism in relation to assessment 8. 4 explain the value of reflective practice and continuing professional development in the assessment process.

Wednesday, January 22, 2020

Hip Hop and the Civil Rights Movement Essay -- Music

The Hip Hop movement was born while the Civil Rights movement was aging. The Civil Rights movement, at its height addressed social inequalities however, in its old age it began to demand economic equality – enter Martin Luther King Jr.’s Poor People’s Campaign. Although Black Americans were allowed to eat next to White Americans in restaurants, and were allowed to sit next to White Americans on buses and enjoy equality in terms of access, white supremacy went underground and manifested as red-lining, unequal protection under the law, and a greater disparity between once racially segregated schools that are now economically segregated. The Civil Rights Movement and the Hip Hop movement are similar, but yet are different. If oppressed individuals draw upon the strengths and weaknesses of these movements they will produce profound results socially and economically in the United States and abroad. It is impossible to separate my voice from this topic, as I was born as an African American girl in 1984 during a time when Hip Hop could metaphorically be considered an adolescent. Through conversations with my grandmother, who grew up in segregated Arkansas, as well as my mother who was a teenager during the turbulent 70’s I have learned qualitative information about the Civil Rights movement. After much research, the major concern for Civil Right’s activists was the integration of schools and all public institutions. Black children had to walk several miles to school – while white students were provided transportation, Black children were given â€Å"hand-me down† textbooks and supplies and black teachers were provided a fraction of the salary that white teachers made. After the historic win of Brown v. Board of Educati... ... always been an issue, but hip hop has the power to cross economic, social and religious divisions. The civil rights movement did not have the resources that the hip-hop movement has today however it has the resiliency, the know-how and blueprint to take our society to the next level where individuals will be less oppressed and more able to positively add to the legacy and values revolution of America. 10 Works Cited hooks, bell. We Real Cool: Black Men and Masculinity. New York: Routledge, 2004. Kitwana, Bakari. The Hip Hop Generation: Young Blacks and Crisis in African American Culture. New York: Basic Civitas, 2002. Morgan, Joan. When Chickenheads Come Home To Roost: My Life as a Hip Hop Feminist. New York: Simon and Schuster, 1999. Neal, Mark Anthony. Soul Babies: Black Popular Culture and the Post-Soul Aesthetic. New York: Routledge, 2002.

Monday, January 13, 2020

Developing Thesis Statement

Work from the General to the Specific in the Introductory Paragraph of a Five-Paragraph Essay In the standard introduction to a five-paragraph essay, the writer works from general to specific. There should be a broad, non-controversial introductory sentence that puts the reader in the ballpark of the essay. This can easily be accomplished by mentioning the name of the book, the author, the time period, or some other piece of relevant, factual information. The next two or three sentences develop on the first sentence adding increasingly more specific information leading up to the thesis.The Thesis Statement Must State a Controversial Point The formulaic thesis statement unequivocally states the main controversial point of the essay and provides â€Å"a roadmap† or outline for the rest of the essay. A disproportionate amount of time should be spent crafting the thesis statement. When the thesis statement is complete, the essay is essentially written. Every thesis statement must have a controversial point, and it needs to be stated succinctly. For example: †¢ â€Å"More than anything else, The Scarlet Letter provides a criticism of nineteenth century America. †The Thesis Statement Should Include a Roadmap for the Three Body Paragraphs in a Five-Paragraph Essay Once the controversial point is written, the writer must determine how he or she will prove it. This is â€Å"the roadmap† and, when combined with the controversial point, completes the thesis statement. Because this is a five paragraph essay, there will be three main points supporting the controversial point. These three points will each be dealt with in turn in the three body paragraphs of the essay. For the controversial point above, three points that will prove it may be: Nathanial Hawthorne’s biography clearly showing his disillusionment with the United States †¢ The hypocrisy of America as demonstrated through slavery and genocide of Native Americans †¢ The al legorical nature of the novel itself—using a seventeenth century setting to illuminate nineteenth century America Constructing â€Å"the Roadmap† Part of the Thesis Statement Using Common Phrases Now that the writer has a controversial point and three pieces of evidence to support it, it is simply a matter of putting the thesis statement together. Having a list of â€Å"go-to† phrases at one’s disposal will help in constructing the actual statement.These phrases will introduce each piece of evidence in the thesis statement. They might include phrases like: By looking at†¦ , In analyzing†¦ , Through understanding†¦ ; In appreciating†¦ ; By examining†¦, Through evaluating†¦ These phrases can be used almost interchangeably to craft the first part of the final thesis statement. For example: †¢ â€Å"Through understanding Hawthorne’s personal disillusionment with the United States, by examining the hypocrisy of ninete enth century America as evidenced by the institutions of slavery and genocide, and, finally, in analyzing the allegorical nature of the novel itself†¦Ã¢â‚¬ Add the Controversial Point to the Roadmap to Complete the Thesis Statement All that is left is to add a phrase such as â€Å"one will come to appreciate† before the controversial point. As such, a formulaic thesis statement might read something like this: †¢ â€Å"Through understanding Hawthorne’s personal disillusionment with the United States, by examining the hypocrisy of nineteenth century America as evidenced by the institutions of slavery and genocide, and finally, in analyzing the allegorical nature of the novel itself, one will come to appreciate that The Scarlet Letter is really a criticism of the country in which the author lived. Forming a Thesis Statement Adapted from: Research Papers for Dummies You've got a subject (â€Å"human-bear interactions†) and a topic (â€Å"the relationshi p between Goldilocks and the three bears†). Now it's time to come up with a thesis statement — the point that you want to make about Goldie and the furry guys. A couple of possibilities occur to you — â€Å"bears that hang around people end up eating porridge and sleeping in beds,† â€Å"both blonds and baby bears like medium-firm mattresses,† and â€Å"humans and bears share forest resources. As you tease out a few more ideas, you search for the middle ground, avoiding a thesis statement that is too broad or too narrow. You want one that, like Goldilocks's porridge, is â€Å"just right. † As soon as you've got a chunk of research, a deck of index cards, or a few files on the computer, take a few moments to reread your material. Think about what you might prove with all those facts and quotations. A couple of techniques will help you decide. Ask questions As you review your notes, do any questions occur to you? Is your curiosity piqued by an ything you've written?If not, check out the next sections, â€Å"If only,† â€Å"I recommend,† and â€Å"Relationships,† or go back to note taking and try again later. Any questions that pop into your mind arise from issues that are relevant to your topic, and issues are the breeding ground for theses. For example, suppose you're doing a psych paper on parental influence — specifically, how parental discipline affects children's behavior. You've read a ton of studies that attempt to describe the relationship between parents' actions and children's reactions.As you review your notes, you may find yourself wondering: †¢ Do children of very strict parents behave better? †¢ Does a child's reaction to strict parental rules change as the child grows older? †¢ Does spanking affect children's self-esteem? †¢ Does inconsistent discipline have a negative effect on children's behavior? Not one of these questions is a thesis, but each is a possibl e starting point. Possible because you can't cover them all in one paper. You have to choose. Right now, suppose that you select the second sample question.If the question of age interests you the most, read your notes again with question two in mind. Look closely at every note concerned with discipline, age, and rules. Put little check marks next to information about children's behavior — the behavior of those children identified as having trouble in school or with the law, perhaps. If necessary, go back to the library or the Internet for more research on the relationship between discipline techniques, age, and children's behavior.If you can, do some statistical analysis to see which factors matter and which are simply coincidence. After you've finished those tasks, you're probably ready to take a stand. Express that stand in a single sentence, perhaps this one: Children of very strict parents follow the rules diligently until adolescence, but not during the teen years. Now you've got the basis for your paper: the thesis statement. (By the way, the preceding paragraphs are just an example, not necessarily a psychological truth! ) If onlyAnother way to hunt for a thesis is to consider the â€Å"if only† spots in your paper. This method is particularly helpful for history projects. Again, start by rereading your notes. Look for moments when the entire course of historical events might have changed, if only one decision or one detail had been different. For example, suppose you're writing about a famous incident involving Humpty Dumpty. You've read eyewitness accounts, historians' analysis of the events, and doctors' descriptions of the injuries Mr. Dumpty suffered. Now you're ready to make a thesis statement.For those of you who aren't familiar with the story, here are the â€Å"facts† of the case: Victim: Humpty Dumpty, male egg Physical description: Round but delicate build, oval face, pale complexion Age: Fresh Date of incident: Nineteen th century Place: King's walled courtyard Description of incident: Victim had a great fall from a wall approximately ten feet high. Bystanders called 911 immediately. King's horses and king's men arrived within ten minutes. Entire battalion of horses and men worked on the victim for 45 minutes, but could not put him back together again.After reviewing all your material, you think †¢ If only the top of the wall had been shaped like an egg crate, giving Humpty Dumpty more stability †¢ If only Humpty Dumpty had eaten a calcium-rich, shell-strengthening diet †¢ If only the king's men had had more training in re-gluing than in military maneuvers The last â€Å"if only† in the preceding list gives you an idea for a thesis, which you turn into a sentence: The emphasis on militarism in the training of the king's men led to the tragic demise of Humpty Dumpty. I recommendDepending upon your topic, another road to a thesis statement comes from the phrase â€Å"I recommen d. † This road is especially helpful if you're writing about science, social science, technology, or any area that looks toward the future. Review your notes and ask yourself what improvements you'd like to see in the situation or conditions. Then ask yourself what should be changed to bring about those improvements. Here's this method in action. Suppose you're writing about fatal accidents. One of your sources is the Humpty Dumpty incident, described in the preceding section, â€Å"If only. As you scan your notes, think about the improvements that you would like to see — perhaps the prevention of shattering injuries caused by falls. What should be changed to bring about that improvement? The addition of calcium supplements to the water supply, a change in the design of palace architecture, additional training in egg gluing for emergency medical personnel, or something else? One of those ideas becomes your thesis statement: To prevent serious injury, architects should design safer walls. RelationshipsAnother thesis catcher is the relationship question, especially helpful when you're writing about literature. As you're poring over your notes, look for events or ideas that belong together in one of these ways: cause and effect, contrast, or similarity. For example, suppose you're writing about the murder of the king in a modern drama, Macbeth Revisited (not a real play). You delve into English politics during the Thatcher era and decide that the factions portrayed in the play reflect the conflict between contemporary English political parties.Now you've got a â€Å"relationship† thesis. The strife between the Googrubs and the McAgues in Macbeth Revisited mirrors the conflict between the Labor and Tory parties in the late twentieth century. Or, suppose you're writing about energy and pollution. You contrast fossil fuels with solar power, deciding on this thesis statement: Solar energy is less harmful to the environment than fossil fuels. â₠¬â€Ã¢â‚¬â€Ã¢â‚¬â€Ã¢â‚¬â€Ã¢â‚¬â€Ã¢â‚¬â€Ã¢â‚¬â€Ã¢â‚¬â€œ Here is a very structured approach to starting a paper. Adapted from Suite101. com A bit more on finding a thesis statement within your topic†¦ Developing Thesis Statement Work from the General to the Specific in the Introductory Paragraph of a Five-Paragraph Essay In the standard introduction to a five-paragraph essay, the writer works from general to specific. There should be a broad, non-controversial introductory sentence that puts the reader in the ballpark of the essay. This can easily be accomplished by mentioning the name of the book, the author, the time period, or some other piece of relevant, factual information. The next two or three sentences develop on the first sentence adding increasingly more specific information leading up to the thesis.The Thesis Statement Must State a Controversial Point The formulaic thesis statement unequivocally states the main controversial point of the essay and provides â€Å"a roadmap† or outline for the rest of the essay. A disproportionate amount of time should be spent crafting the thesis statement. When the thesis statement is complete, the essay is essentially written. Every thesis statement must have a controversial point, and it needs to be stated succinctly. For example: †¢ â€Å"More than anything else, The Scarlet Letter provides a criticism of nineteenth century America. †The Thesis Statement Should Include a Roadmap for the Three Body Paragraphs in a Five-Paragraph Essay Once the controversial point is written, the writer must determine how he or she will prove it. This is â€Å"the roadmap† and, when combined with the controversial point, completes the thesis statement. Because this is a five paragraph essay, there will be three main points supporting the controversial point. These three points will each be dealt with in turn in the three body paragraphs of the essay. For the controversial point above, three points that will prove it may be: Nathanial Hawthorne’s biography clearly showing his disillusionment with the United States †¢ The hypocrisy of America as demonstrated through slavery and genocide of Native Americans †¢ The al legorical nature of the novel itself—using a seventeenth century setting to illuminate nineteenth century America Constructing â€Å"the Roadmap† Part of the Thesis Statement Using Common Phrases Now that the writer has a controversial point and three pieces of evidence to support it, it is simply a matter of putting the thesis statement together. Having a list of â€Å"go-to† phrases at one’s disposal will help in constructing the actual statement.These phrases will introduce each piece of evidence in the thesis statement. They might include phrases like: By looking at†¦ , In analyzing†¦ , Through understanding†¦ ; In appreciating†¦ ; By examining†¦, Through evaluating†¦ These phrases can be used almost interchangeably to craft the first part of the final thesis statement. For example: †¢ â€Å"Through understanding Hawthorne’s personal disillusionment with the United States, by examining the hypocrisy of ninete enth century America as evidenced by the institutions of slavery and genocide, and, finally, in analyzing the allegorical nature of the novel itself†¦Ã¢â‚¬ Add the Controversial Point to the Roadmap to Complete the Thesis Statement All that is left is to add a phrase such as â€Å"one will come to appreciate† before the controversial point. As such, a formulaic thesis statement might read something like this: †¢ â€Å"Through understanding Hawthorne’s personal disillusionment with the United States, by examining the hypocrisy of nineteenth century America as evidenced by the institutions of slavery and genocide, and finally, in analyzing the allegorical nature of the novel itself, one will come to appreciate that The Scarlet Letter is really a criticism of the country in which the author lived. Forming a Thesis Statement Adapted from: Research Papers for Dummies You've got a subject (â€Å"human-bear interactions†) and a topic (â€Å"the relationshi p between Goldilocks and the three bears†). Now it's time to come up with a thesis statement — the point that you want to make about Goldie and the furry guys. A couple of possibilities occur to you — â€Å"bears that hang around people end up eating porridge and sleeping in beds,† â€Å"both blonds and baby bears like medium-firm mattresses,† and â€Å"humans and bears share forest resources. As you tease out a few more ideas, you search for the middle ground, avoiding a thesis statement that is too broad or too narrow. You want one that, like Goldilocks's porridge, is â€Å"just right. † As soon as you've got a chunk of research, a deck of index cards, or a few files on the computer, take a few moments to reread your material. Think about what you might prove with all those facts and quotations. A couple of techniques will help you decide. Ask questions As you review your notes, do any questions occur to you? Is your curiosity piqued by an ything you've written?If not, check out the next sections, â€Å"If only,† â€Å"I recommend,† and â€Å"Relationships,† or go back to note taking and try again later. Any questions that pop into your mind arise from issues that are relevant to your topic, and issues are the breeding ground for theses. For example, suppose you're doing a psych paper on parental influence — specifically, how parental discipline affects children's behavior. You've read a ton of studies that attempt to describe the relationship between parents' actions and children's reactions.As you review your notes, you may find yourself wondering: †¢ Do children of very strict parents behave better? †¢ Does a child's reaction to strict parental rules change as the child grows older? †¢ Does spanking affect children's self-esteem? †¢ Does inconsistent discipline have a negative effect on children's behavior? Not one of these questions is a thesis, but each is a possibl e starting point. Possible because you can't cover them all in one paper. You have to choose. Right now, suppose that you select the second sample question.If the question of age interests you the most, read your notes again with question two in mind. Look closely at every note concerned with discipline, age, and rules. Put little check marks next to information about children's behavior — the behavior of those children identified as having trouble in school or with the law, perhaps. If necessary, go back to the library or the Internet for more research on the relationship between discipline techniques, age, and children's behavior.If you can, do some statistical analysis to see which factors matter and which are simply coincidence. After you've finished those tasks, you're probably ready to take a stand. Express that stand in a single sentence, perhaps this one: Children of very strict parents follow the rules diligently until adolescence, but not during the teen years. Now you've got the basis for your paper: the thesis statement. (By the way, the preceding paragraphs are just an example, not necessarily a psychological truth! ) If onlyAnother way to hunt for a thesis is to consider the â€Å"if only† spots in your paper. This method is particularly helpful for history projects. Again, start by rereading your notes. Look for moments when the entire course of historical events might have changed, if only one decision or one detail had been different. For example, suppose you're writing about a famous incident involving Humpty Dumpty. You've read eyewitness accounts, historians' analysis of the events, and doctors' descriptions of the injuries Mr. Dumpty suffered. Now you're ready to make a thesis statement.For those of you who aren't familiar with the story, here are the â€Å"facts† of the case: Victim: Humpty Dumpty, male egg Physical description: Round but delicate build, oval face, pale complexion Age: Fresh Date of incident: Nineteen th century Place: King's walled courtyard Description of incident: Victim had a great fall from a wall approximately ten feet high. Bystanders called 911 immediately. King's horses and king's men arrived within ten minutes. Entire battalion of horses and men worked on the victim for 45 minutes, but could not put him back together again.After reviewing all your material, you think †¢ If only the top of the wall had been shaped like an egg crate, giving Humpty Dumpty more stability †¢ If only Humpty Dumpty had eaten a calcium-rich, shell-strengthening diet †¢ If only the king's men had had more training in re-gluing than in military maneuvers The last â€Å"if only† in the preceding list gives you an idea for a thesis, which you turn into a sentence: The emphasis on militarism in the training of the king's men led to the tragic demise of Humpty Dumpty. I recommendDepending upon your topic, another road to a thesis statement comes from the phrase â€Å"I recommen d. † This road is especially helpful if you're writing about science, social science, technology, or any area that looks toward the future. Review your notes and ask yourself what improvements you'd like to see in the situation or conditions. Then ask yourself what should be changed to bring about those improvements. Here's this method in action. Suppose you're writing about fatal accidents. One of your sources is the Humpty Dumpty incident, described in the preceding section, â€Å"If only. As you scan your notes, think about the improvements that you would like to see — perhaps the prevention of shattering injuries caused by falls. What should be changed to bring about that improvement? The addition of calcium supplements to the water supply, a change in the design of palace architecture, additional training in egg gluing for emergency medical personnel, or something else? One of those ideas becomes your thesis statement: To prevent serious injury, architects should design safer walls. RelationshipsAnother thesis catcher is the relationship question, especially helpful when you're writing about literature. As you're poring over your notes, look for events or ideas that belong together in one of these ways: cause and effect, contrast, or similarity. For example, suppose you're writing about the murder of the king in a modern drama, Macbeth Revisited (not a real play). You delve into English politics during the Thatcher era and decide that the factions portrayed in the play reflect the conflict between contemporary English political parties.Now you've got a â€Å"relationship† thesis. The strife between the Googrubs and the McAgues in Macbeth Revisited mirrors the conflict between the Labor and Tory parties in the late twentieth century. Or, suppose you're writing about energy and pollution. You contrast fossil fuels with solar power, deciding on this thesis statement: Solar energy is less harmful to the environment than fossil fuels. â₠¬â€Ã¢â‚¬â€Ã¢â‚¬â€Ã¢â‚¬â€Ã¢â‚¬â€Ã¢â‚¬â€Ã¢â‚¬â€Ã¢â‚¬â€œ Here is a very structured approach to starting a paper. Adapted from Suite101. com A bit more on finding a thesis statement within your topic†¦

Sunday, January 5, 2020

Metatheatre in a Midsummer Nights Dream - 1805 Words

METATHEATRE IN A MIDSUMMER NIGHT’S DREAM (SHAKESPEARE). The term metatheatre is used to refer to any instance in which a play draws attention to itself as a play, rather than pretending to be a representation of â€Å"reality.† Various uses of metatheatrical devices can be found in the works of William Shakespeare. One of Shakespeare’s favorite such devices is the â€Å"play-within-a-play.† With this device, the theatre audience finds itself watching an audience (on stage) watching a play. The play-within-a-play is thus a self-reflexive device that addresses the question of where audience reality ends and theatrical illusion begins. Shakespeare often incorporated the device as an integral part of his plots. A famous example can†¦show more content†¦Puck’s statement reflects back to the words used by Quince in his prologue to the play-within-a-play. In the words of Quince: â€Å"If we offend, it is with our good will. That you shoul d think, we come not to offend, but with good will† (5.1.108-109). Throughout A Midsummer Night’s Dream, while the story involving Lysander, Demetrius, Hermia, Helena, Oberon and Titania is developing, the rustic gentlemen (Bottom and his friends) are shown rehearsing for a play that they will perform in honor of the upcoming wedding of Theseus (the Duke of Athens) and Hippolyta. The play, â€Å"Pyramus and Thisby,† is based on a story that was told by the ancient Roman writer Ovid and retold by Chaucer. The â€Å"Pyramus and Thisby† play is not performed until the fifth and final act of A Midsummer Night’s Dream. By then, as Barton points out, the major problems of Lysander, Demetrius and the rest have all been neatly resolved. As such, the â€Å"Pyramus and Thisby† play-within-a-play â€Å"seems, in effect, to take place beyond the normal, plot-defined boundaries of comedy† (Barton 110). Taylor argues that the speech made by Thes eus before the play-within-a-play is performed â€Å"brings logic and order to all that is illogical andShow MoreRelatedA Midsummer Night s Dream By Pyramus And Thisbe1325 Words   |  6 Pages The inclusion of a play within a play often serves to highlight and reinforce the dramatic nature of the primary play. Pyramus and Thisbe do this exact practice in a midsummer night’s dream. Pyramus and Thisbe is the play which is performed by the mechanicals at the end of the play. Because the craftsmen are such bumbling actors, their performance satirizes the melodramatic Athenian lovers and gives the play a purely joyful, comedic ending. Pyramus and Thisbe face parental an social disapprovalRead MoreWilliam Shakespeares A Midsummer Night’s Dream1973 Words   |  8 PagesWilliam Shakespeares A Midsummer Night’s Dream The focus of this discussion will be upon the language and performance possibilities of this extract from the Dream[1], following brief consideration of the manner in which the extract relates to the rest of the play in terms of plot development and the reflection of certain of the play’s themes. Performance aspects are considered alongside the distinctive features of the language, as it is suggested that the nature